about the knee
The Knee Joint
Three bones and two different types of cartilage make up the knee
joint. Let’s look
Femur, or thigh bone. The thigh bone ends at the knee with two separated prominences called condyles. Touch your knees together and you have brought the inside, or medial femoral condyles together. We call the outside condyle the lateral femoral condyle.
Tibia, or shin bone. The top of the tibia meets the femur with a tibial plateau. The medial condyle rides on the medial plateau on the inside; on the outside the lateral condyle rides on the lateral plateau.
Patella, or knee cap. This small bone rides in the groove, or sulcus between the condyles. The sulcus sits over the front part of the femur just above the condyles in an area called the trochlea.
Articular cartilage. A glistening white substance like firm rubber covers the end of the femur., the top of the tibia, and back of the patella. These special articular cartilage surfaces glide, or “articulate,” together. We call this special cartilage hyaline cartilage, a mixture of collagen and sponge-like molecules, all maintained by living cells. Hyaline cartilage creates a surface more slippery than water on ice. When healthy, this allows smooth, easy joint motion.
Meniscal cartilage. On top of the
plateau are two C-shaped pads, each called a
Injuring either type of cartilage upsets the normal stresses on the
The New Jersey Cartilage Restoration